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Economic evaluation of quality improvement interventions to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the hospital setting: a systematic review.

McCleskey SG, Shek L, Grein J, Gotanda H, Anderson L, Shekelle PG, Keeler E, Morton S, Nuckols TK. Economic evaluation of quality improvement interventions to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the hospital setting: a systematic review. BMJ quality & safety. 2022 Apr 1; 31(4):308-321.

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BACKGROUND: Hospitals have implemented diverse quality improvement (QI) interventions to reduce rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The economic value of these QI interventions is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review economic evaluations of QI interventions designed to prevent CAUTI in acute care hospitals. METHODS: A search of Ovid MEDLINE, Econlit, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, WorldCat, IDWeek conference abstracts and prior systematic reviews was conducted from January 2000 to October 2020.We included English-language studies of any design that evaluated organisational or structural changes to prevent CAUTI in acute care hospitals, and reported programme and infection-related costs.Dual reviewers assessed study design, effectiveness, costs and study quality. For each eligible study, we performed a cost-consequences analysis from the hospital perspective, estimating the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and incremental net cost/savings per hospital over 3?years. Unadjusted weighted regression analyses tested predictors of these measures, weighted by catheter days per study. RESULTS: Fifteen unique economic evaluations were eligible, encompassing 74 hospitals. Across 12 studies amenable to standardisation, QI interventions were associated with a 43% decline in infections (mean IRR 0.57, 95%?CI 0.44 to 0.70) and wide ranges of net costs (mean US$52 000, 95%?CI -$288?000 to $392 000), relative to usual care. CONCLUSIONS: QI interventions were associated with large declines in infection rates and net costs to hospitals that varied greatly but that, on average, were not significantly different from zero over 3?years. Future research should examine specific practices associated with cost-savings and clinical effectiveness, and examine whether or not more comprehensive interventions offer hospitals and patients the best value.

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