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Published models that predict hospital readmission: a critical appraisal.

Grossman Liu L, Rogers JR, Reeder R, Walsh CG, Kansagara D, Vawdrey DK, Salmasian H. Published models that predict hospital readmission: a critical appraisal. BMJ open. 2021 Aug 3; 11(8):e044964.

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INTRODUCTION: The number of readmission risk prediction models available has increased rapidly, and these models are used extensively for health decision-making. Unfortunately, readmission models can be subject to flaws in their development and validation, as well as limitations in their clinical usefulness. OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise readmission models in the published literature using Delphi-based recommendations for their development and validation. METHODS: We used the modified Delphi process to create (CAMPR), which lists expert recommendations focused on development and validation of readmission models. Guided by CAMPR, two researchers independently appraised published readmission models in two recent systematic reviews and concurrently extracted data to generate reference lists of eligibility criteria and risk factors. RESULTS: We found that published models (n = 81) followed 6.8 recommendations (45%) on average. Many models had weaknesses in their development, including failure to internally validate (12%), failure to account for readmission at other institutions (93%), failure to account for missing data (68%), failure to discuss data preprocessing (67%) and failure to state the model''s eligibility criteria (33%). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of weaknesses in model development identified in the published literature is concerning, as these weaknesses are known to compromise predictive validity. CAMPR may support researchers, clinicians and administrators to identify and prevent future weaknesses in model development.

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