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The Prevalence of Drug-Drug Interactions with Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in the Intensive Care Unit.
Johnston JP, Heavner MS, Liu M, Casal GLH, Akgün KM. The Prevalence of Drug-Drug Interactions with Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Journal of pharmacy practice. 2021 Sep 29; 8971900211035262.
Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are frequently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Persons living with HIV on ART may be at higher risk for potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) due to polypharmacy in the ICU. We determined the prevalence of pDDI with ART in critically ill PWH. The primary outcome was prevalence of pDDI between ART and ICU medications. Secondary outcomes included pDDI per ICU admission, pDDI severity, ICU, and hospital length of stay (LOS). A single-center, retrospective cohort evaluating PWH = 18 years old admitted to the ICU for > 24 hours who received ART during ICU admission, between January 2013 and 2015 at a tertiary care hospital in the United States. Each ICU admission was counted as a separate encounter. Medication databases and chart review were used to identify pDDI. We included 77 PWH encounters; mean age was 55 ± 9 years and 65% were male. We identified 208 pDDIs among 53/77 (68.8%), with a mean 4 ± 2 pDDI per ICU admission. Antipsychotics (20%), analgesics (20%), and anti-lipemics (11%) were the most common ICU medications with ART-related pDDI. Of the pDDI, 64% were major, 24% moderate, and 12% contraindicated. Median ICU and hospital LOS were 4 days (IQR: 3-5) and 11 days (IQR: 7-31), respectively. Most PWH had at least one pDDI during ICU admission. Collaborations among pharmacists, intensivists, and infectious disease/HIV specialists to develop effective, actionable strategies, such as electronic health record alerts, could reduce pDDIs for PWH on ART in the ICU.