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Ascertainment of Veterans With Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Electronic Health Records: Demonstrating the Case for Natural Language Processing.
Alba PR, Gao A, Lee KM, Anglin-Foote T, Robison B, Katsoulakis E, Rose BS, Efimova O, Ferraro JP, Patterson OV, Shelton JB, Duvall SL, Lynch JA. Ascertainment of Veterans With Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Electronic Health Records: Demonstrating the Case for Natural Language Processing. JCO clinical cancer informatics. 2021 Sep 1; 5:1005-1014.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the leading causes of cancer deaths. While localized PCa has a 5-year survival rate approaching 100%, this rate drops to 31% for metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). Thus, timely identification of mPCa is a crucial step toward measuring and improving access to innovations that reduce PCa mortality. Yet, methods to identify patients diagnosed with mPCa remain elusive. Cancer registries provide detailed data at diagnosis but are not updated throughout treatment. This study reports on the development and validation of a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm deployed on oncology, urology, and radiology clinical notes to identify patients with a diagnosis or history of mPCa in the Department of Veterans Affairs.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Using a broad set of diagnosis and histology codes, the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse was queried to identify all Veterans with PCa. An NLP algorithm was developed to identify patients with any history or progression of mPCa. The NLP algorithm was prototyped and developed iteratively using patient notes, grouped into development, training, and validation subsets.
A total of 1,144,610 Veterans were diagnosed with PCa between January 2000 and October 2020, among which 76,082 (6.6%) were identified by NLP as having mPCa at some point during their care. The NLP system performed with a specificity of 0.979 and sensitivity of 0.919.
Clinical documentation of mPCa is highly reliable. NLP can be leveraged to improve PCa data. When compared to other methods, NLP identified a significantly greater number of patients. NLP can be used to augment cancer registry data, facilitate research inquiries, and identify patients who may benefit from innovations in mPCa treatment.