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Petty LA, Flanders SA, Vaughn VM, Ratz D, O'Malley M, Malani AN, Washer L, Kim T, Kocher KE, Kaatz S, Czilok T, McLaughlin E, Prescott HC, Chopra V, Gandhi T. Risk factors and outcomes associated with community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A multihospital cohort study. Infection control and hospital epidemiology. 2022 Sep 1; 43(9):1184-1193.
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the incidence of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate associated predictors and outcomes. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2020 across 38 Michigan hospitals, we assessed prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfections. In-hospital and 60-day mortality, readmission, discharge to long-term care facility (LTCF), and mechanical ventilation duration were assessed for patients with versus without coinfection. RESULTS: Of 2,205 patients with COVID-19, 141 (6.4%) had a coinfection: 3.0% community onset and 3.4% hospital acquired. Of patients without coinfection, 64.9% received antibiotics. Community-onset coinfection predictors included admission from an LTCF (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 2.34-6.76; < .001) and admission to intensive care (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.87-6.55; < .001). Hospital-acquired coinfection predictors included fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.15-5.27; = .02) and advanced respiratory support (OR, 40.72; 95% CI, 13.49-122.93; < .001). Patients with (vs without) community-onset coinfection had longer mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.67-6.56; = .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06-3.40; = .03) and 60-day mortality (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05-3.29; = .03). Patients with (vs without) hospital-acquired coinfection had higher discharge to LTCF (OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 3.30-21.76; < .001), in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.37-7.33; .001), and 60-day mortality (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.11-6.33; .001). CONCLUSION: Despite community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection being uncommon, most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 received antibiotics. Admission from LTCF and to ICU were associated with increased risk of community-onset coinfection. Future studies should prospectively validate predictors of COVID-19 coinfection to facilitate the reduction of antibiotic use.