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Williams EC, Chen JA, Frost MC, Rubinsky AD, Edmonds AT, Glass JE, Lehavot K, Matson TE, Wheat CL, Coggeshall S, Blosnich JR. Receipt of evidence-based alcohol-related care in a national sample of transgender patients with unhealthy alcohol use: Overall and relative to non-transgender patients. Journal of substance abuse treatment. 2021 Dec 1; 131:108565.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based alcohol-related care-brief intervention for all patients with unhealthy alcohol use and specialty addictions treatment and/or pharmacotherapy for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD)-should be routinely offered. Transgender persons may be particularly in need of alcohol-related care, given common experiences of social and economic hardship that may compound the adverse effects of unhealthy alcohol use. We examined receipt of alcohol-related care among transgender patients compared to non-transgender patients in a large national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use. METHODS: We extracted electronic health record data for patients from all VA facilities who had an outpatient visit 10/1/09-7/31/17 and a documented positive screen for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C = 5). We identified transgender patients with a validated approach using transgender-related diagnostic codes. We fit modified Poisson models, adjusted for demographics and comorbidities, to estimate the average predicted prevalence of brief intervention (documented 0-14 days following most recent positive screening), specialty addictions treatment for AUD (documented 0-365 days following screening), and filled prescriptions for medications to treat AUD (documented 0-365 days following screening) for transgender patients, and compared to that of non-transgender patients. RESULTS: Among transgender Veterans with unhealthy alcohol use (N = 1392), the adjusted prevalence of receiving brief intervention was 75.4% (95% CI 72.2-78.5), specialty addictions treatment for AUD was 15.7% (95% CI 13.7-17.7), and any AUD pharmacotherapy was 19.0% (95% CI 17.1-20.8). Receipt of brief intervention did not differ for transgender relative to non-transgender patients (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.04, p = 0.574). However, transgender patients were more likely to receive specialty addictions treatment (PR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.37, p < 0.001) and pharmacotherapy (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.28, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest the majority of transgender VHA patients with unhealthy alcohol use receive brief intervention, though a quarter still do not. Nonetheless, rates of specialty addictions treatment and pharmacotherapy are low overall, although transgender patients may be receiving this care at greater rates than non-transgender patients. Further research is needed to investigate these findings and to increase receipt of evidence-based care overall.