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Impact of a Dyadic Intervention on Family Supporter Involvement in Helping Adults Manage Type 2 Diabetes.

Zupa MF, Lee A, Piette JD, Trivedi R, Youk A, Heisler M, Rosland AM. Impact of a Dyadic Intervention on Family Supporter Involvement in Helping Adults Manage Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of general internal medicine. 2022 Mar 1; 37(4):761-768.

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BACKGROUND: Family support for adults'' diabetes care is associated with improved self-management and outcomes, but healthcare providers lack structured ways to engage those supporters. OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact of a patient-supporter diabetes management intervention on supporters'' engagement in patients'' diabetes care, support techniques, and caregiving experience. DESIGN: Multivariate regression models examined between-group differences in support-related measures observed as part of a larger trial randomizing participants to a dyadic intervention versus usual care. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 239 adults with type 2 diabetes and either A1c > 8% or systolic blood pressure > 160mmHg enrolled with a family supporter. INTERVENTION: Health coaches provided training on positive support techniques and facilitated self-management information sharing and goal-setting. MAIN MEASURES: Patient and supporter reports at baseline and 12 months of supporter roles in diabetes care and caregiving experience. RESULTS: At 12 months, intervention-assigned patients had higher odds of reporting increased supporter involvement in remembering medical appointments (AOR 2.74, 95% CI 1.44, 5.21), performing home testing (AOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.29, 4.46), accessing online portals (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.29, 4.30), deciding when to contact healthcare providers (AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.15, 3.91), and refilling medications (AOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.14, 3.89), but not with attending medical appointments or with healthy eating and exercise. Intervention-assigned patients reported increased supporter use of autonomy supportive communication (+0.27 points on a 7-point scale, p = 0.02) and goal-setting techniques (+0.30 points on a 5-point scale, p = 0.01). There were no differences at 12 months in change scores measuring supporter distress about patients'' diabetes or caregiving burden. Intervention-assigned supporters had significantly larger increases in satisfaction with health system support for their role (+0.88 points on a 10-point scale, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A dyadic patient-supporter intervention led to increased family supporter involvement in diabetes self-management and increased use of positive support techniques, without increasing caregiver stress.

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