Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

Health Services Research & Development

Go to the ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR&D Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Associations of Duration, Intensity, and Quantity of Smoking With Risk of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia.

Thrift AP, Jove AG, Liu Y, Tan MC, El-Serag HB. Associations of Duration, Intensity, and Quantity of Smoking With Risk of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2022 Jan 1; 56(1):e71-e76.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


GOAL: Determine whether various dimensions of smoking increase risk for gastric intestinal metaplasia. BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the etiology of gastric cancer, but it is not clear if smoking is a risk factor for gastric intestinal metaplasia, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared data from 385 gastric intestinal metaplasia cases and 1577 controls without gastric intestinal metaplasia recruited into a cross-sectional study at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston, Texas. All participants completed standardized questionnaires and underwent a study endoscopy with gastric mapping biopsies. Gastric intestinal metaplasia cases included participants with intestinal metaplasia on any noncardia gastric biopsy. We calculated odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had 2-fold increased risk for gastric intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.85). Among ever smokers, increasing duration and total dose were significantly associated with increased risk for gastric intestinal metaplasia (P-trend, 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). Among former smokers, risk for gastric intestinal metaplasia decreased over time and was no different to never smokers after 15 years smoking cessation. Cases with gastric intestinal metaplasia were more likely than controls to have Helicobacter pylori infection (53.2% vs. 21.7%); however, smoking effect on gastric intestinal metaplasia was not different by H. pylori infection status. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for gastric intestinal metaplasia. Risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia among former smokers remained significantly elevated until 15 years postcessation.

Questions about the HSR&D website? Email the Web Team.

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.