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Provision of Smoking Cessation Resources in the Context of In-Person Shared Decision-Making for Lung Cancer Screening.

Shen J, Crothers K, Kross EK, Petersen K, Melzer AC, Triplette M. Provision of Smoking Cessation Resources in the Context of In-Person Shared Decision-Making for Lung Cancer Screening. Chest. 2021 Aug 1; 160(2):765-775.

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BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening (LCS) is effective at reducing mortality for high-risk smokers. Mortality benefits go beyond early cancer detection, because shared decision-making (SDM) may present a "teachable moment" to reinforce cessation and provide resources. RESEARCH QUESTION: How well is smoking cessation performed during LCS SDM encounters, and what patient and provider characteristics are associated with smoking cessation assistance? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of current smokers participating in initial LCS SDM through a multisite program in Seattle, Washington, between 2015-2018. The LCS tracking database and electronic health record were reviewed for demographics, comorbidity data, and clinical encounter information. The primary outcome was provision of a smoking cessation resource, defined as referral to cessation resources, recommendation for nicotine replacement, or prescription for cessation medication. Participant and provider factor associations with the outcome were evaluated using ? testing and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Most of the 423 study participants were men (70%), with a median age of 61 (IQR, 58-66) years and median of 50 (41-72) pack-years of smoking. Only 26% of encounters had documentation consistent with SDM. Thirty-nine percent of participants received at least one smoking cessation resource, and only 5% received both counseling referrals and medication. In a multivariable model, the provision of any smoking cessation resource was half as likely in participants with higher levels of comorbidity (Charlson Index > 2; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.81), and half as likely if the ordering provider was not the patient''s PCP or their specialist (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.96). INTERPRETATION: Overall provision of smoking cessation resources was moderate during SDM encounters for LCS, and lower in patients with more comorbidities and when not performed by the patient''s PCP or specialist. Interventions are needed to improve smoking cessation counseling and resource utilization at the time of LCS encounters.

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