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Neighborhoods with Greater Prevalence of Minority Residents Have Lower Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence.

Borker PV, Carmona E, Essien UR, Saeed GJ, Nouraie SM, Bakker JP, Stitt CJ, Aloia MS, Patel SR. Neighborhoods with Greater Prevalence of Minority Residents Have Lower Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2021 Aug 1; 204(3):339-346.

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Abstract:

Limited data suggest racial disparities in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence exist. To assess whether CPAP adherence varies by neighborhood racial composition at a national scale. Telemonitoring data from a CPAP manufacturer database were used to assess adherence in adult patients initiating CPAP therapy between November 2015 and October 2018. Mapping ZIP code to ZIP code tabulation areas, age- and sex-adjusted CPAP adherence data at a neighborhood level was computed as a function of neighborhood racial composition. Secondary analyses adjusted for neighborhood education and poverty. Among 787,236 patients living in 26,180 ZIP code tabulation areas, the prevalence of CPAP adherence was 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.6%) lower in neighborhoods with high (?25%) versus low ( < 1%) percentages of Black residents and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9-1.5%) lower in neighborhoods with high versus low percentages of Hispanic residents ( < 0.001 for both), even after adjusting for neighborhood differences in poverty and education. Mean CPAP usage was similar across neighborhoods for the first 2 days, but by 90 days, differences in CPAP usage increased to 22 minutes (95% CI, 18-27 min) between neighborhoods with high versus low percentages of Black residents and 22 minutes (95% CI 17-27 min) between neighborhoods with high versus low percentages of Hispanic residents ( < 0.001 for both). CPAP adherence is lower in neighborhoods with greater proportions of Black and Hispanic residents, independent of education or poverty. These differences lead to a lower likelihood of meeting insurance coverage requirements for CPAP therapy, potentially exacerbating sleep health disparities.





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