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Impact of Multimodality Treatment Sequence on Survival in Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Stokes SM, Massarweh NN, Stringham JR, Varghese TK. Impact of Multimodality Treatment Sequence on Survival in Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2021 Nov 1; 112(5):1559-1567.

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BACKGROUND: The value of neoadjuvant treatment in combination with resection as multimodality therapy (MMT) for stage IIB non-small cell lung cancer remains controversial. METHODS: This was a national cohort study of patients with clinical stage IIB non-small cell lung cancer (2006 to 2015) that used the National Cancer Database. Cohorts were defined on the basis of the MMT sequence and were categorized as follows: surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation (ACRT), neoadjuvant therapy plus surgery (NA), surgery-alone, and definitive chemotherapy or chemoradiation (nonsurgical). The primary comparison was between the NA and AC cohorts. Propensity matching methods were used to match cohorts who had AC vs NA. Multivariable Cox regression was used to analyze the difference in risk of death between the NA and AC groups. RESULTS: There were 10,841 patients with stage IIB lung cancer: 2476 in the AC, 854 with ACRT, 1195 with NA, 2019 with surgery alone, and 4297 with nonsurgical treatment. Of the 6544 patients who underwent surgery, 37.8% had AC, 13.1% had ACRT, 18.3% had NA, and 30.9% had surgery alone. Relative to those patients treated with AC, nonsurgical treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.69 to 3.17) or surgery-alone (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.38) was associated with a significantly higher risk of death. After propensity matching, there was no difference in the risk of death between the NA and AC cohorts (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.31). CONCLUSIONS: MMT, including surgical resection, is associated with improved OS, regardless of treatment sequence, with no difference in survival on the basis of an NA or AC approach. The potential benefits of NA over AC to ensure that patients complete MMT warrant further prospective investigation.

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