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Physical Frailty Phenotype and the Development of Geriatric Syndromes in Older Adults with Coronary Heart Disease.

Damluji AA, Chung SE, Xue QL, Hasan RK, Walston JD, Forman DE, Bandeen-Roche K, Moscucci M, Batchelor W, Resar JR, Gerstenblith G. Physical Frailty Phenotype and the Development of Geriatric Syndromes in Older Adults with Coronary Heart Disease. The American journal of medicine. 2021 May 1; 134(5):662-671.e1.

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BACKGROUND: Frailty, a clinical state of vulnerability, is associated with subsequent adverse geriatric syndromes in the general population. We examined the long-term impact of frailty on geriatric outcomes among older patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS: We used the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a prospective cohort study linked to a Medicare sample. Coronary heart disease was identified by self-report or International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes 1-year prior to the baseline visit. Frailty was measured using the Fried physical frailty phenotype. Geriatric outcomes were assessed annually during a 6-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 4656 participants, 1213 (26%) had a history of coronary heart disease 1-year prior to their baseline visit. Compared to those without frailty, subjects with frailty were older (ages = 75: 80.9% vs 68.9%, P < 0.001), more likely to be female, and belong to an ethnic minority. The prevalence of hypertension, stroke, falls, disability, anxiety/depression, and multimorbidity were much higher in the frail, than nonfrail, participants. In a discrete time survival model, the incidence of geriatric syndromes during 6-year follow-up including 1) dementia, 2) loss of independence, 3) activities of daily living disability, 4) instrumental activities of daily living disability, and 5) mobility disability were significantly higher in the frail than in the nonfrail older patients with coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION: In patients with coronary heart disease, frailty is a risk factor for the accelerated development of geriatric outcomes. Efforts to identify frailty in the context of coronary heart disease are needed, as well as interventions to limit or reverse frailty status for older patients with coronary heart disease.

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