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Temporal Trends of Candidemia Incidence Rates and Potential Contributions of Infection Control Initiatives Over 18 Years Within the United States Veterans Health Administration System: A Joinpoint Time-Series Analysis.

Suzuki H, Perencevich EN, Diekema DJ, Livorsi DJ, Nair R, Kralovic SM, Roselle GA, Goto M. Temporal Trends of Candidemia Incidence Rates and Potential Contributions of Infection Control Initiatives Over 18 Years Within the United States Veterans Health Administration System: A Joinpoint Time-Series Analysis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2021 Aug 16; 73(4):689-696.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Candidemia is one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections, but the impacts of factors affecting its incidence have not been evaluated. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all candidemia patients at 130 acute care hospitals in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system from January 2000 through December 2017. Cases were classified as hospital-onset (HO) and non-hospital-onset (NHO). We used Joinpoint regression analysis to assess temporal associations between significant changes in candidemia incidence rates and guidelines or horizontal infection control (IC) interventions. RESULTS: Over 18 years, 17 661 candidemia episodes were identified. Incidence rates of HO cases were increasing until the mid-2000s, followed by a sustained decline, while NHO cases showed a steady decline. The first change in HO candidemia incidence rates (August 2004 [95% confidence interval {CI}, February 2003-April 2005]) was preceded by the publication of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) prevention guidelines and the CRBSI surveillance initiation. The second (September 2007 [95% CI, September 2006-June 2009]) had close temporal proximity to the expansion of IC resources within the VHA system. Collectively, these trend changes resulted in a 77.1% reduction in HO candidemia incidence rates since its peak in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial and sustained systemwide reduction in candidemia incidence rates was observed after the publication of guidelines, VHA initiatives about CRBSI reporting and education on CRBSI prevention, and the systemwide expansion of IC resources.





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