Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

Health Services Research & Development

Go to the ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR&D Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Impact of Sex and Metabolic Comorbidities on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mortality Risk Across Age Groups: 66 646 Inpatients Across 613 U.S. Hospitals.

Goodman KE, Magder LS, Baghdadi JD, Pineles L, Levine AR, Perencevich EN, Harris AD. Impact of Sex and Metabolic Comorbidities on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mortality Risk Across Age Groups: 66 646 Inpatients Across 613 U.S. Hospitals. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2021 Dec 6; 73(11):e4113-e4123.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.

Questions about the HSR&D website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.