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Testicular cancer in Hispanics: incidence of subtypes over time according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors in California.
DeRouen MC, McKinley M, Shah SA, Borno HT, Aoki R, Lichtensztajn DY, Leppert JT, Brooks JD, Chung BI, Gomez SL, Cheng I. Testicular cancer in Hispanics: incidence of subtypes over time according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors in California. Cancer Causes & Control : Ccc. 2020 Aug 1; 31(8):713-721.
Hispanic men in the USA experience the second-highest incidence rate of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), behind non-Hispanic (NH) White men, and have experienced steep increases in TGCT in recent decades. It is unknown whether increases in incidence differ according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors.
We conducted a population-based study of n? = 3759 Hispanic and n? = 8469 NH White men (n? = 12,228 total) diagnosed with TGCT in California during the three most recent pericensal periods. We calculated incidence rates according to neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and among Hispanics, according to ethnic enclave. We calculated incidence rate ratios to compare rates across nSES and ethnic enclave and to examine changes in rates over pericensal time periods according to these neighborhood factors for major histologic types (i.e., seminoma and nonseminoma).
Hispanic men residing in high SES, compared to low SES, neighborhoods had greater incidence of seminoma and nonseminoma testicular cancer across pericensal periods, as did Hispanic men in low enclave (less ethnic), compared to high enclave, neighborhoods. Between the periods 1998-2002 and 2008-2012, Hispanic men residing in low SES neighborhoods experienced a 39% increased incidence of seminoma, while those residing in low and middle SES neighborhoods experienced 87% and 48% increased incidence of nonseminoma, respectively.
While TGCT incidence has increased among all Hispanic men, incidence increases appear to be driven disproportionately by those residing in lower SES and lower enclave neighborhoods, particularly for nonseminoma.