Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

VA Health Systems Research

Go to the VA ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Five-year Pain Intensity and Treatment Trajectories of Post-9/11 Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Song K, Wang CP, McGeary DD, Jaramillo CA, Eapen BC, Amuan M, McGeary CA, Potter JS, Pugh MJ. Five-year Pain Intensity and Treatment Trajectories of Post-9/11 Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. The journal of pain. 2020 Sep 1; 21(9-10):1005-1017.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


Pain is a pervasive problem that affects nearly half of the U.S. Veterans deployed in support of the Global War on Terror (Post-9/11 Veterans) and over half of the Post-9/11 Veterans with diagnosed traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of the current study was to identify pain phenotypes based on distinct longitudinal patterns of pain scores in light of pain treatment among Post-9/11 Veterans over 5 years of care using latent growth mixture analysis stratified by TBI status. Five pain phenotypes emerged: 1) simple low impact stable pain, 2) complex low impact stable pain, 3) complex low impact worsening pain, 4) complex moderate impact worsening pain, and 5) complex high impact stable pain. Baseline pain scores and slopes were significantly higher in Veterans with mild TBI for some phenotypes. The mild TBI cohort was younger, had more men, more whites, less blacks, less education, more unmarried, more Marines and Army, more active duty in comparison to the no TBI cohort. Distinct trajectories in pain treatment were apparent among the pain intensity subgroups. PERSPECTIVE: The complexity of pain in patients with mTBI is categorically different than those with no TBI. Pain in patients with mTBI is heterogeneous with distinct phenotypes which may explain poor outcomes in this group. Identification of the individual differences may have a significant impact on the success of interventions.

Questions about the HSR website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.