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Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies.

Munn-Chernoff MA, Johnson EC, Chou YL, Coleman JRI, Thornton LM, Walters RK, Yilmaz Z, Baker JH, Hübel C, Gordon S, Medland SE, Watson HJ, Gaspar HA, Bryois J, Hinney A, Leppä VM, Mattheisen M, Ripke S, Yao S, Giusti-Rodríguez P, Hanscombe KB, Adan RAH, Alfredsson L, Ando T, Andreassen OA, Berrettini WH, Boehm I, Boni C, Boraska Perica V, Buehren K, Burghardt R, Cassina M, Cichon S, Clementi M, Cone RD, Courtet P, Crow S, Crowley JJ, Danner UN, Davis OSP, de Zwaan M, Dedoussis G, Degortes D, DeSocio JE, Dick DM, Dikeos D, Dina C, Dmitrzak-Weglarz M, Docampo E, Duncan LE, Egberts K, Ehrlich S, Escaramís G, Esko T, Estivill X, Farmer A, Favaro A, Fernández-Aranda F, Fichter MM, Fischer K, Föcker M, Foretova L, Forstner AJ, Forzan M, Franklin CS, Gallinger S, Giegling I, Giuranna J, Gonidakis F, Gorwood P, Gratacos Mayora M, Guillaume S, Guo Y, Hakonarson H, Hatzikotoulas K, Hauser J, Hebebrand J, Helder SG, Herms S, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Herzog W, Huckins LM, Hudson JI, Imgart H, Inoko H, Janout V, Jiménez-Murcia S, Julià A, Kalsi G, Kaminská D, Karhunen L, Karwautz A, Kas MJH, Kennedy JL, Keski-Rahkonen A, Kiezebrink K, Kim YR, Klump KL, Knudsen GPS, La Via MC, Le Hellard S, Levitan RD, Li D, Lilenfeld L, Lin BD, Lissowska J, Luykx J, Magistretti PJ, Maj M, Mannik K, Marsal S, Marshall CR, Mattingsdal M, McDevitt S, McGuffin P, Metspalu A, Meulenbelt I, Micali N, Mitchell K, Monteleone AM, Monteleone P, Nacmias B, Navratilova M, Ntalla I, O'Toole JK, Ophoff RA, Padyukov L, Palotie A, Pantel J, Papezova H, Pinto D, Rabionet R, Raevuori A, Ramoz N, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Ricca V, Ripatti S, Ritschel F, Roberts M, Rotondo A, Rujescu D, Rybakowski F, Santonastaso P, Scherag A, Scherer SW, Schmidt U, Schork NJ, Schosser A, Seitz J, Slachtova L, Slagboom PE, Slof-Op't Landt MCT, Slopien A, Sorbi S, Swiatkowska B, Szatkiewicz JP, Tachmazidou I, Tenconi E, Tortorella A, Tozzi F, Treasure J, Tsitsika A, Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor M, Tziouvas K, van Elburg AA, van Furth EF, Wagner G, Walton E, Widen E, Zeggini E, Zerwas S, Zipfel S, Bergen AW, Boden JM, Brandt H, Crawford S, Halmi KA, Horwood LJ, Johnson C, Kaplan AS, Kaye WH, Mitchell J, Olsen CM, Pearson JF, Pedersen NL, Strober M, Werge T, Whiteman DC, Woodside DB, Grove J, Henders AK, Larsen JT, Parker R, Petersen LV, Jordan J, Kennedy MA, Birgegård A, Lichtenstein P, Norring C, Landén M, Mortensen PB, Polimanti R, McClintick JN, Adkins AE, Aliev F, Bacanu SA, Batzler A, Bertelsen S, Biernacka JM, Bigdeli TB, Chen LS, Clarke TK, Degenhardt F, Docherty AR, Edwards AC, Foo JC, Fox L, Frank J, Hack LM, Hartmann AM, Hartz SM, Heilmann-Heimbach S, Hodgkinson C, Hoffmann P, Hottenga JJ, Konte B, Lahti J, Lahti-Pulkkinen M, Lai D, Ligthart L, Loukola A, Maher BS, Mbarek H, McIntosh AM, McQueen MB, Meyers JL, Milaneschi Y, Palviainen T, Peterson RE, Ryu E, Saccone NL, Salvatore JE, Sanchez-Roige S, Schwandt M, Sherva R, Streit F, Strohmaier J, Thomas N, Wang JC, Webb BT, Wedow R, Wetherill L, Wills AG, Zhou H, Boardman JD, Chen D, Choi DS, Copeland WE, Culverhouse RC, Dahmen N, Degenhardt L, Domingue BW, Frye MA, Gäebel W, Hayward C, Ising M, Keyes M, Kiefer F, Koller G, Kramer J, Kuperman S, Lucae S, Lynskey MT, Maier W, Mann K, Männistö S, Müller-Myhsok B, Murray AD, Nurnberger JI, Preuss U, Räikkönen K, Reynolds MD, Ridinger M, Scherbaum N, Schuckit MA, Soyka M, Treutlein J, Witt SH, Wodarz N, Zill P, Adkins DE, Boomsma DI, Bierut LJ, Brown SA, Bucholz KK, Costello EJ, de Wit H, Diazgranados N, Eriksson JG, Farrer LA, Foroud TM, Gillespie NA, Goate AM, Goldman D, Grucza RA, Hancock DB, Harris KM, Hesselbrock V, Hewitt JK, Hopfer CJ, Iacono WG, Johnson EO, Karpyak VM, Kendler KS, Kranzler HR, Krauter K, Lind PA, McGue M, MacKillop J, Madden PAF, Maes HH, Magnusson PKE, Nelson EC, Nöthen MM, Palmer AA, Penninx BWJH, Porjesz B, Rice JP, Rietschel M, Riley BP, Rose RJ, Shen PH, Silberg J, Stallings MC, Tarter RE, Vanyukov MM, Vrieze S, Wall TL, Whitfield JB, Zhao H, Neale BM, Wade TD, Heath AC, Montgomery GW, Martin NG, Sullivan PF, Kaprio J, Breen G, Gelernter J, Edenberg HJ, Bulik CM, Agrawal A. Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies. Addiction Biology. 2021 Jan 1; 26(1):e12880.

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Abstract:

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.





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