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Van Houtven CH, Smith VA, Stechuchak KM, Berkowitz TSZ, Miller KEM, Shepherd-Banigan M, Kabat M, Henius J. Comprehensive support of family caregivers: Are there health system cost offsets? Health services research. 2020 Oct 1; 55(5):710-721.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Caregivers (PCAFC) on total VA health care costs for Veterans. DATA SOURCES: VA claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a pre-post cohort design with nonequivalent control group, we estimated the effect of PCAFC on total VA costs up through 6 years. The treatment group included Veterans (n = 32 394) whose caregivers enrolled in PCAFC. The control group included an inverse probability of treatment weighted sample of Veterans whose caregivers were denied PCAFC enrollment (n = 38 402). DATA EXTRACTION: May 2009-September 2017. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total VA costs pre-PCAFC application date were no different between groups. Veterans in PCAFC were estimated to have $13 227 in VA costs in the first 6 months post-PCAFC application, compared to $10 806 for controls. Estimated VA costs for both groups decreased in the first 3 years with a narrowing, but persistent and significant, difference, through 5.5 years. No significant difference in VA health care costs existed at 6 years, approximately $10 000 each, though confidence intervals reflect significant uncertainty in cost differences at 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Increased costs arose from increased outpatient costs of participants. Sample composition changes may explain lack of significance in cost differences at 6 years because these costs comprise of early appliers to PCAFC. Examining 10-year costs could elucidate whether there are long-term cost offsets from increased engagement in outpatient care.