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Colorectal cancer screening among Hispanics in the United States: Disparities, modalities, predictors, and regional variation.

Viramontes O, Bastani R, Yang L, Glenn BA, Herrmann AK, May FP. Colorectal cancer screening among Hispanics in the United States: Disparities, modalities, predictors, and regional variation. Preventive medicine. 2020 Sep 1; 138:106146.

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Abstract:

Hispanics represent the largest and one of the fastest growing minority populations in the U.S. and have lower survival from colorectal cancer (CRC) than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). We aimed to examine screening modalities, predictors, and regional disparities among Hispanics and NHW in the U.S. by conducting a cross-sectional analysis of Hispanic participants age 50 to 75 from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. The primary outcome was self-reported CRC screening status. We used the Rao-Scott Chi-square test to compare screening rates and modalities in NHWs and Hispanics. We also used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of screening among Hispanics and calculated Hispanic-NHW screening rate differences for each U.S. state/territory as a measure of regional screening disparities. The screening rate was 53.4% for Hispanics (N  =  12,395), compared to 70.4% for NHWs (N  =  186,331) (p  <  0.001). Among Hispanics, colonoscopy was most common (75.9%). Uninsured status (aOR  =  0.51; 95% CI  =  0.38-0.70) and limited access to medical care (aOR  =  0.38; 95% CI  =  0.29-0.49) predicted lack of screening. States/territories with the largest screening disparities were North Carolina (33.9%), Texas (28.3%), California (25.1%), and Nebraska (25.6%). Disparities were smallest in New York (2.6%), Indiana (3.1%), and Delaware (4.0%). In Ohio and Guam, Hispanics had higher screening rates than NHWs. In conclusion, Hispanics have lower CRC screening rates than NHWs across most U.S. states/territories; however, the disparity varies by region. Future efforts must address multi-level barriers to screening among Hispanics and target regions with low rates to improve CRC outcomes in this growing population.





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