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Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases and Premature Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: An Analysis From the VITAL Registry.

Mahtta D, Gupta A, Ramsey DJ, Rifai MA, Mehta A, Krittanawong C, Lee MT, Nasir K, Samad Z, Blumenthal RS, Jneid H, Ballantyne CM, Petersen LA, Virani SS. Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases and Premature Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: An Analysis From the VITAL Registry. The American journal of medicine. 2020 Dec 1; 133(12):1424-1432.e1.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Although the association between autoimmune rheumatic diseases and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is well-known, there is a lack of data regarding the role of such disorders in patients with premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The Veterans With Premature Atherosclerosis (VITAL) registry, including patients with premature (males < 55 years, females < 65 years) and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ( < 40 years), was created from the 2014-2015 nationwide Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system database. We assessed age at the time of first cardiovascular event to compare patients with premature (n? = 135,703) and those with extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n? = 7716) with age-matched patients without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n? = 1,153,535, n? = 441,836). We assessed whether systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were independently associated with premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Patients with premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease had a higher prevalence of all rheumatic diseases as compared with age-matched patients without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In fully adjusted models, systemic lupus erythematosus (odds ratio [OR]: 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-1.83) and rheumatoid arthritis (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.63-1.81) were associated with increased odds of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 2.38-3.93) and rheumatoid arthritis (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.85-3.08) also had a higher likelihood of extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis carry higher odds of both premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Future studies are needed to understand the rheumatic disease-specific factors behind the development and progression of clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in these young patients.





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