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Bowden JL, Hunter DJ, Deveza LA, Duong V, Dziedzic KS, Allen KD, Chan PK, Eyles JP. Core and adjunctive interventions for osteoarthritis: efficacy and models for implementation. Nature reviews. Rheumatology. 2020 Aug 1; 16(8):434-447.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex musculoskeletal disease and a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Hip and knee OA alone are major contributors to global disability, having notable effects on individual well-being, increasing the reliance of individuals on health-care services and contributing to a rise in the socioeconomic burden. Consistent, coordinated and tailored approaches are important for providing appropriate care to all people with OA, but despite the scale of the challenge many individuals are still not offered the safe, best-evidence treatments recommended for OA care. This Review discusses the core priority treatments for OA, including exercise and physical activity, weight-loss, education and support for self-management. Additional physical or psychological evidence-based adjunctive therapies and combined therapies that can be used to tailor individual programmes are also discussed. These options include cognitive behavioural therapy, heat therapy, walking aids and splints, manual therapies and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. International examples of OA treatment options, models of care and resources available are also given. Many challenges still need to be addressed to advance the uptake of these conditions, including further discussion around the risks and costs involved with all treatments.