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Cost-Effectiveness of Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin for Intermediate and High Risk Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.
Sharma V, Wymer KM, Borah BJ, Saigal CS, Litwin MS, Packiam VT, Thompson RH, Tollefson MK, Karnes RJ, Boorjian SA. Cost-Effectiveness of Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin for Intermediate and High Risk Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. The Journal of urology. 2020 Sep 1; 204(3):442-449.
While guidelines support the use of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin for patients with intermediate and high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, in an era of bacillus Calmette-Guérin shortage we explored the cost-effectiveness of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A Markov model compared the cost-effectiveness of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin to surveillance after induction bacillus Calmette-Guérin for intermediate/high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer from a U.S. Medicare perspective. Five-year oncologic outcomes, toxicity rates and utility values were extracted from the literature. Univariable and multivariable sensitivity analyses were conducted. A willingness to pay threshold of $100,000 per quality adjusted life year was considered cost-effective.
At 5 years mean costs per patient were $14,858 and $13,973 for maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin and surveillance, respectively, with quality adjusted life years of 4.046 for both, making surveillance the dominant strategy. On sensitivity analysis full dose and 1/3 dose maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin became cost-effective if the absolute reduction in 5-year progression was greater than 2.1% and greater than 0.76%, respectively. On further sensitivity analysis full dose and 1/3 dose maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin became cost-effective when maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin toxicity equaled surveillance toxicity. In multivariable sensitivity analyses using 100,000 Monte-Carlo microsimulations, full dose and 1/3 dose maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin was cost-effective in 17% and 39% of microsimulations, respectively.
Neither full dose nor 1/3 dose maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin appears cost-effective for the entire population of patients with intermediate/high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. These data support prioritizing maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin for the subset of patients with high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer most likely to experience progression, in particular those who tolerated induction bacillus Calmette-Guérin well. Overall, our findings support the American Urological Association policy statement to allocate bacillus Calmette-Guérin for induction rather than maintenance therapy during times of bacillus Calmette-Guérin shortage.