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Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid use disorder in clinical practice: Vivitrol's Cost and Treatment Outcomes Registry.

Saxon AJ, Akerman SC, Liu CC, Sullivan MA, Silverman BL, Vocci FJ. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid use disorder in clinical practice: Vivitrol's Cost and Treatment Outcomes Registry. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 2018 Aug 1; 113(8):1477-1487.

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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a µ-opioid receptor antagonist for prevention of relapse to opioid dependence, has demonstrated efficacy compared with placebo and comparative effectiveness with buprenorphine-naloxone. We report outcomes for XR-NTX in Vivitrol''s Cost and Treatment Outcomes Registry. DESIGN: Observational, open-label, single-arm, multi-center registry assessing baseline characteristics and clinical and health-related quality-of-life outcomes associated with XR-NTX treatment in clinical practice. SETTING: 32 US treatment centers from 2011 to 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opioid dependence who were prescribed XR-NTX treatment and then enrolled into the registry. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly visits were evaluated for the full population and for patient ubgroups retrospectively, defined by injection number, focusing on the period between baseline and month 6 (1-, 2/3- or 6-XR-NTX). FINDINGS: Of 403 enrolled patients, 395 were analyzed. Most patients (n  =  349) received out-patient care. On average, patients received five injections (median  =  3; range  =  1-25). The median number of injections administered within 6 months was higher in patients who at baseline were employed (three versus two unemployed, P  =  0.02) or had private insurance (five versus two self-payment, P  =  0.005; versus two state-funded, P  <  0.001). The 1-, 2/3- and 6-XR-NTX groups had 132, 152 and 111 patients, respectively. At baseline, the 6-XR-NTX patients were more likely to meet normal/minimal mental illness criteria and attend school and less likely to report recent drug use. Within 6 months, the 6-XR-NTX group demonstrated improvements in employment, mental health and psychosocial functioning, and decreases in opioid craving, drug use and drug-related behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Among opioid-dependent people receiving XR-NTX treatment, better mental health, higher education and lower recent drug use at baseline are associated with greater treatment duration; in turn, longer treatment duration is associated with lower relapse rates and improved outcomes generally.

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