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Novel CIL-102 derivatives as potential therapeutic agents for docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer.
Miller DR, Tzeng CC, Miller DR, Tzeng CC, Farmer T, Keller ET, Farmer T, Caplan S, Keller ET, Chen YS, Caplan S, Chen YS, Chen YL, Lin MF, Chen YL, Lin MF. Novel CIL-102 derivatives as potential therapeutic agents for docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer letters. 2018 Nov 1; 436:96-108.
The standard-of-care treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Nevertheless, most tumors eventually relapse and develop into lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Docetaxel is a FDA-approved agent for the treatment of CRPC; however, the tumor often quickly develops resistance to this drug. Thus, there is an immediate need for novel therapies to treat docetaxel-resistant PCa. In this study, we modified the structure of CIL-102 and investigated the efficacy of the derivatives against CRPC and docetaxel-resistant PCa. These novel CIL-102 derivatives inhibit CRPC tumorigenicity, including proliferation, migration and colony formation, and importantly, selectively inhibit CRPC cell proliferation over non-cancerous prostate epithelia. Computational modeling indicated the derivatives bind to -tubulin and immunocytochemistry revealed the depolymerization of microtubules upon treatment. Western blot analyses reveal that pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidant pathways are activated, and MitoSOX and DCF-DA analyses confirmed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production upon treatments. Furthermore, CIL-102 derivatives effectively reduce the proliferation of docetaxel-resistant CR PCa cell lines. Our data indicate the potential of these compounds as promising therapeutic agents for CRPC as well as docetaxel-resistant CRPC.