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Zifodya JS, Crothers K. Treating bacterial pneumonia in people living with HIV. Expert review of respiratory medicine. 2019 Aug 1; 13(8):771-786.
: Bacterial pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. In addition to being immunocompromised, as reflected by low CD4 cell counts and elevated HIV viral loads, PLWH often have other behaviors associated with an increased risk of pneumonia including smoking and injected drug use. As PLWH are aging, comorbid conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancers, and cardiovascular, renal and liver diseases are emerging as additional risk factors for pneumonia. Pathogens are often similar to those in HIV-uninfected individuals; however, PLWH are at risk for unusual and/or multi-drug resistant organisms causing bacterial pneumonia based, in part, on their CD4 cell counts and other exposures. : In this review, we focus on the recognition and management of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in PLWH. Along with antimicrobial treatment, we discuss prevention strategies such as vaccination and smoking cessation. : Early initiation of ART after HIV infection can decrease the risk of pneumonia. Improved efforts at vaccination, smoking cessation, and reduction of other substance use are urgently needed in PLWH to decrease the risk for bacterial pneumonia. As PLWH are aging, comorbidities are additional risk factors for bacterial CAP.