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Prevalence of high-grade anal dysplasia among women with high-grade lower genital tract dysplasia or cancer: Results of a pilot study.

Fokom Domgue J, Messick C, Milbourne A, Guo M, Salcedo MP, Dahlstrom KR, Chiao EY, Deshmukh AA, Sturgis EM, Schmeler KM. Prevalence of high-grade anal dysplasia among women with high-grade lower genital tract dysplasia or cancer: Results of a pilot study. Gynecologic oncology. 2019 May 1; 153(2):266-270.

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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of high-grade anal dysplasia in women with high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma of the cervix, vagina or vulva. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants underwent anal cytology, anal HPV testing with Cervista HPV16/18 and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA). Patients with HSIL (high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion) or greater on anal cytology or anal biopsy were referred to a colorectal surgery specialist for further evaluation. RESULTS: Seventy-five women were enrolled in the study, including 47 with cervical (cervix group), 10 with vaginal (vagina group), 15 with vulvar (vulva group), 1 with cervical and vaginal, and 2 with vulvar and vaginal disease. The median age in the cervix group (40?years (range 26-69)) was substantially younger than in the vagina (60?years (38-69)) and the vulva (59?years (36-75)) groups. Anal HSIL based on composite endpoints of the most severe cytology or histology result was diagnosed in 6 patients (8.0%). Anal cytology revealed HSIL in 2 (2.7%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in 12 (16.0%), low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in 2 (2.7%), and was normal in 59 (78.7%) patients. Anal HPV16/18 test was positive in 15 (20.0%), negative in 48 (64.0%) and insufficient in 12 (16.0%) patients. Of the 6 women with high-grade anal dysplasia, three (50%) had a positive anal HPV16/18 test. No case of anal cancer was observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the prevalence of anal HSIL is elevated among women with HPV-related lower genital tract dysplasia or cancer. To further support the inclusion of this high-risk group into screening guidelines for anal dysplasia, further studies are necessary to determine what screening strategy is suited to this population.

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