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Stigma, Treatment, and Health among Stimulant Users: Life Stage as a Moderator.
Woodhead EL, Timko C, Han X, Cucciare MA. Stigma, Treatment, and Health among Stimulant Users: Life Stage as a Moderator. Journal of applied developmental psychology. 2018 Dec 3; 60:96-104.
This 3-year study examined associations among drug use stigma, life stage, treatment utilization and health among 710 US adults using stimulants. Consistent with substance use developmental frameworks, life stage was represented by Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old, n = 223), Earlymid adulthood (26-44 years old; n = 384), and Older adulthood (45-61 years old; n = 103). Emerging adults experienced less enacted stigma (i.e., experiences of discrimination) and perceived less public stigma (i.e., unjust treatment) over the course of the study than other life stage groups. More baseline enacted stigma was associated with more mental health and substance use treatment, whereas more baseline self stigma (i.e., negative thoughts about the self) was associated with less treatment utilization. Life stage moderated stigma-outcome associations such that substance use outcomes were worse for Emerging adults reporting more enacted stigma. Although emerging adults experienced less drug use stigma, stigma had a more negative impact on adults in this life stage.