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Wallace C, Reiber GE, LeMaster J, Smith DG, Sullivan K, Hayes S, Vath C. Incidence of falls, risk factors for falls, and fall-related fractures in individuals with diabetes and a prior foot ulcer. Diabetes Care. 2002 Nov 1; 25(11):1983-6.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of falls, risk factors for falls, and the frequency of fall-related fractures in a cohort of individuals with diabetes and a prior foot ulcer. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 400 individuals with diabetes and a prior foot ulcer were recruited from two western Washington State health care organizations and followed prospectively for 2 years. Diabetes, demographic, and health information was collected at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Data on falls were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, and every 17 weeks thereafter. Medical records were abstracted to confirm fall-related morbidity. RESULTS: The average age of the study population was 62 years, with 77% male and 23% female. Approximately 32% had fixed foot deformities, 58% had insensate feet, and 76% had comorbid conditions. Of the participants, 252 (64%) reported at least one fall during the 2-year study period. The overall incidence of falls in this cohort was 1.25 falls/person-year (95% CI 1.17-1.33). For the 164 participants (41%) who reported two or more falls, a BMI > / = 30 kg/m(2), the presence of one or more comorbid conditions, and insensate feet increased the risk. Two or more falls of any type were associated with a higher fracture risk. Although women were not at significantly greater risk for falls than men, their fracture incidence was 3.6 times higher. CONCLUSIONS: Falls are very common in individuals with diabetes and prior foot ulcers. A small percentage of falls resulted in fractures. The risk of a fall-related fracture was significantly higher in women than in men. Increased attention to falls and fall prevention is indicated for diabetes care providers.