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Musa J, Achenbach CJ, Evans CT, Jordan N, Daru PH, Hou L, Murphy RL, Adewole IF, Simon MA. Association between patient-reported HIV status and provider recommendation for screening in an opportunistic cervical Cancer screening setting in Jos, Nigeria. BMC health services research. 2018 Nov 22; 18(1):885.
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening (CCS) is an important health service intervention for prevention of morbidity and mortality from invasive cervical cancer. The role of provider recommendation and referral is critical in utilization of this services particularly in settings where screening is largely opportunistic. We sought to understand how patient-reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status is associated with provider referral in an opportunistic screening setting. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data on a sample of women who had received a CCS at the "Operation Stop" cervical cancer (OSCC) screening service in Jos, Nigeria over a 10-year time period (2006-2016). We used the de-identified records of women who had their first CCS to analyze the association between patient-reported HIV and likelihood of provider-referral at first CCS. We performed descriptive statistics with relevant test of association using Student t-test (t-test) for continuous variables and Pearson chi square or Fisher exact test where applicable for categorical variables. We also used a bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the independent association of patient-reported HIV on provider referral. All statistical tests were performed using STATA version 14.1, College Station, Texas, USA. Level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: During the 10-year period, 14,088 women had their first CCS. The reported HIV prevalence in the population was 5.0%; 95% CI: 4.6, 5.4 (703/14,088). The median age of women who were screened was 37 years (IQR; 30-45). Women who were HIV infected received more referrals from providers compared to women who were HIV uninfected (68.7% versus 49.2%), p-value < 0.001. Similarly, we found an independent effect of patient-reported HIV infection on the likelihood for provider-referral in the screened sample (aOR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.95, 2.82). CONCLUSION: Our analysis supports the design of health systems that facilitates providers' engagement and provision of necessary counseling for CCS in the course of routine clinical care. The practice of offering recommendation and referrals for CCS to women at high risk of cervical cancer, such as HIV infected women should be supported.