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Acute Kidney Injury and Risk of Incident Heart Failure Among US Veterans.

Bansal N, Matheny ME, Greevy RA, Eden SK, Perkins AM, Parr SK, Fly J, Abdel-Kader K, Himmelfarb J, Hung AM, Speroff T, Ikizler TA, Siew ED. Acute Kidney Injury and Risk of Incident Heart Failure Among US Veterans. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2018 Feb 1; 71(2):236-245.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes. Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. The relationship between AKI and heart failure remains unknown and may identify a novel mechanistic link between kidney and cardiovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: We studied a national cohort of 300,868 hospitalized US veterans (2004-2011) without a history of heart failure. PREDICTOR: AKI was the predictor and was defined as a 0.3-mg/dL or 50% increase in serum creatinine concentration from baseline to the peak hospital value. Patients with and without AKI were matched (1:1) on 28 in- and outpatient covariates using optimal Mahalanobis distance matching. OUTCOMES: Incident heart failure was defined as 1 or more hospitalization or 2 or more outpatient visits with a diagnosis of heart failure within 2 years through 2013. RESULTS: There were 150,434 matched pairs in the study. Patients with and without AKI during the index hospitalization were well matched, with a median preadmission estimated glomerular filtration rate of 69mL/min/1.73m. The overall incidence rate of heart failure was 27.8 (95% CI, 19.3-39.9) per 1,000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in those with compared with those without AKI: 30.8 (95% CI, 21.8-43.5) and 24.9 (95% CI, 16.9-36.5) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In multivariable models, AKI was associated with 23% increased risk for incident heart failure (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.19-1.27). LIMITATIONS: Study population was primarily men, reflecting patients seen at Veterans Affairs hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is an independent risk factor for incident heart failure. Future studies to identify underlying mechanisms and modifiable risk factors are needed.





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