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Harris AH, Kuo AC, Bowe T, Gupta S, Nordin D, Giori NJ. Prediction Models for 30-Day Mortality and Complications After Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasties for Veteran Health Administration Patients With Osteoarthritis. The Journal of arthroplasty. 2018 May 1; 33(5):1539-1545.
BACKGROUND: Statistical models to preoperatively predict patients' risk of death and major complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) could improve the quality of preoperative management and informed consent. Although risk models for TJA exist, they have limitations including poor transparency and/or unknown or poor performance. Thus, it is currently impossible to know how well currently available models predict short-term complications after TJA, or if newly developed models are more accurate. We sought to develop and conduct cross-validation of predictive risk models, and report details and performance metrics as benchmarks. METHODS: Over 90 preoperative variables were used as candidate predictors of death and major complications within 30 days for Veterans Health Administration patients with osteoarthritis who underwent TJA. Data were split into 3 samples-for selection of model tuning parameters, model development, and cross-validation. C-indexes (discrimination) and calibration plots were produced. RESULTS: A total of 70,569 patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis who received primary TJA were included. C-statistics and bootstrapped confidence intervals for the cross-validation of the boosted regression models were highest for cardiac complications (0.75; 0.71-0.79) and 30-day mortality (0.73; 0.66-0.79) and lowest for deep vein thrombosis (0.59; 0.55-0.64) and return to the operating room (0.60; 0.57-0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Moderately accurate predictive models of 30-day mortality and cardiac complications after TJA in Veterans Health Administration patients were developed and internally cross-validated. By reporting model coefficients and performance metrics, other model developers can test these models on new samples and have a procedure and indication-specific benchmark to surpass.