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Attributable Cost and Length of Stay Associated with Nosocomial Gram-Negative Bacterial Cultures.

Nelson RE, Stevens VW, Jones M, Khader K, Schweizer ML, Perencevich EN, Rubin MA, Samore MH. Attributable Cost and Length of Stay Associated with Nosocomial Gram-Negative Bacterial Cultures. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2018 Nov 1; 62(11).

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Few studies have estimated the excess inpatient costs due to nosocomial cultures of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and those that do are often subject to time-dependent bias. Our objective was to generate estimates of the attributable costs of the underlying infections associated with nosocomial cultures by using a unique inpatient cost data set from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs that allowed us to reduce time-dependent bias. Our study included data from inpatient admissions between 1 October 2007 and 30 November 2010. Nosocomial GNB-positive cultures were defined as clinical cultures positive for , , or between 48 h after admission and discharge. Positive cultures were further classified by site and level of resistance. We conducted analyses using both a conventional approach and an approach aimed at reducing the impact of time-dependent bias. In both instances, we used multivariable generalized linear models to compare the inpatient costs and length of stay for patients with and without a nosocomial GNB culture. Of the 404,652 patients included in the conventional analysis, 12,356 had a nosocomial GNB-positive culture. The excess costs of nosocomial GNB-positive cultures were significant, regardless of specific pathogen, site, or resistance level. Estimates generated using the conventional analysis approach were 32.0% to 131.2% greater than those generated using the approach to reduce time-dependent bias. These results are important because they underscore the large financial burden attributable to these infections and provide a baseline that can be used to assess the impact of improvements in infection control.

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