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DeJonckheere M, Robinson CH, Evans L, Lowery J, Youles B, Tremblay A, Kelley C, Sussman JB. Designing for Clinical Change: Creating an Intervention to Implement New Statin Guidelines in a Primary Care Clinic. JMIR human factors. 2018 Apr 24; 5(2):e19.
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical practice guidelines from major national organizations, including a joint United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) committee, have substantially changed recommendations for the use of the cholesterol-lowering statin medications after years of relative stability. Because statin medications are among the most commonly prescribed treatments in the United States, any change in their use may have significant implications for patients and providers alike. Prior research has shown that effective implementation interventions should be both user centered and specifically chosen to address identified barriers. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to identify potential determinants of provider uptake of the new statin guidelines and to use that information to tailor a coordinated and streamlined local quality improvement intervention focused on prescribing appropriate statins. METHODS: We employed user-centered design principles to guide the development and testing of a multicomponent guideline implementation intervention to improve statin prescribing. This paper describes the intervention development process whereby semistructured qualitative interviews with providers were conducted to (1) illuminate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of providers and (2) elicit feedback on intervention prototypes developed to align with and support the use of the VA/DoD guidelines. Our aim was to use this information to design a local quality improvement intervention focused on statin prescribing that was tailored to the needs of primary care providers at our facility. Cabana''s Clinical Practice Guidelines Framework for Improvement and Nielsen''s Usability Heuristics were used to guide the analysis of data obtained in the intervention development process. RESULTS: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 primary care Patient Aligned Care Team professionals (13 physicians and 2 clinical pharmacists) at a single VA medical center. Findings highlight that providers were generally comfortable with the paradigm shift to risk-based guidelines but less clear on the need for the VA/DoD guidelines in specific. Providers preferred a clinical decision support tool that helped them calculate patient risk and guide their care without limiting autonomy. They were less comfortable with risk communication and performance measurement systems that do not account for shared decision making. When possible, we incorporated their recommendations into the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: By combining qualitative methods and user-centered design principles, we could inform the design of a multicomponent guideline implementation intervention to better address the needs and preferences of providers, including clear and direct language, logical decision prompts with an option to dismiss a clinical decision support tool, and logical ordering of feedback information. Additionally, this process allowed us to identify future design considerations for quality improvement interventions.