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Luckenbaugh AN, Hollenbeck BK, Kaufman SR, Yan P, Herrel LA, Skolarus TA, Norton EC, Schroeck FR, Jacobs BL, Miller DC, Hollingsworth JM, Shahinian VB, Borza T. Impact of Accountable Care Organizations on Diagnostic Testing for Prostate Cancer. Urology. 2018 Jun 1; 116:68-75.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) have the potential to accelerate the impact of prostate cancer screening recommendations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using Medicare data evaluating the rates of PSA testing and prostate biopsy among men without prostate cancer between 2011 and 2014. We assessed PSA testing and biopsy rates before and after policy implementation among patients of ACO and non-ACO-aligned physicians. To control for secular trends, difference-in-differences methods were used to determine the effects of ACO implementation. RESULTS: We identified 1.1 million eligible men without prostate cancer. From 2011 to 2014, the rates of PSA testing and biopsy declined by 22.3% and 7.0%, respectively. PSA testing declined similarly regardless of ACO participation-from 618 to 530 tests per 1000 beneficiaries among ACO-aligned physicians and from 607 to 516 tests per 1000 beneficiaries among non-ACO-aligned physicians (difference-in-differences P? = .11). Whereas rates of prostate biopsy remained constant for patients of non-ACO-aligned physicians at 12 biopsies per 1000 beneficiaries, these rates increased from 11.6 to 12.5 biopsies per 1000 beneficiaries of patients of ACO-aligned physicians (difference-in-differences P? = .03). CONCLUSION: PSA testing and prostate biopsy rates decreased significantly between 2011 and 2014. The rate of PSA testing was not differentially affected by ACO participation. Conversely, there was an increase in the rate of prostate biopsy among patients of ACO-aligned physicians. ACOs did not accelerate deimplementation of PSA testing for eligible Medicare beneficiaries without prostate cancer.