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Initial results of a lung cancer screening demonstration project: a local program evaluation.

Fabbrini AE, Lillie SE, Partin MR, Fu SS, Clothier BA, Bangerter AK, Nelson DB, Doro EA, Bell BJ, Rice KL. Initial results of a lung cancer screening demonstration project: a local program evaluation. The American journal of managed care. 2018 Jun 1; 24(6):272-277.

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OBJECTIVES: To describe participation rates, results, and lessons learned from a lung cancer screening (LCS) demonstration project. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study at 1 of 8 centers participating in a national Veterans Health Administration LCS demonstration project. METHODS: An electronic health record (EHR) algorithm and tobacco pack-year (TPY) information prompt identified patients potentially eligible for LCS. LCS invitation was planned to consist of shared decision-making materials, an invitation letter to call the LCS manager, a reminder letter, and an outreach phone call for nonresponders. The outreach call was subsequently dropped due to time constraints on the LCS manager. Lung nodules and incidental findings on LCS low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) were recorded in templated radiology reports and tracked with EHR notes. RESULTS: Of 6133 potentially eligible patients, we identified 1388 patients with eligible TPY information: 918 were invited for LCS and 178 (19%) completed LCS. LCS completion was more likely in patients in the mailing-plus-call outreach group (phase I) compared with the mail-only group (phase II) (22% vs 9%; P < .001). Among those completing an LDCT, 61% had lung nodules requiring follow-up: 43% of the nodules were less than 4 mm in diameter, 12 patients required further diagnostic evaluation, and 2 had lung malignancies. There were 179 incidental LDCT findings in 116 patients, and 20% were clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Important considerations in LCS are accurate identification of eligible patients, balancing invitation approaches with resource constraints, and establishing standardized methods for tracking numerous small lung nodules and incidental findings detected by LDCT.

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