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A contemporary population-based analysis of the incidence, cost, and outcomes of postoperative delirium following major urologic cancer surgeries.

Ha A, Krasnow RE, Mossanen M, Nagle R, Hshieh TT, Rudolph JL, Chang SL. A contemporary population-based analysis of the incidence, cost, and outcomes of postoperative delirium following major urologic cancer surgeries. Urologic oncology. 2018 Jul 1; 36(7):341.e15-341.e22.

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PURPOSE: Postoperative delirium (PD) is associated with poor outcomes and increased health care costs. The incidence, outcomes, and cost of delirium for major urologic cancer surgeries have not been previously characterized in a population-based analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of patients with PD at 490 US hospitals between 2003 and 2013 to evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and cost of delirium after radical prostatectomy, radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, and radical cystectomy (RC). Delirium was defined using ICD-9 codes in combination with postoperative antipsychotics, sitters, and restraints. Regression models were constructed to assess mortality, discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS), and direct hospital admission costs. Survey-weighted adjustment for hospital clustering achieved estimates generalizable to the US population. RESULTS: We identified 165,387 patients representing a weighted total of 1,097,355 patients. The overall incidence of PD was 2.7%, with the greatest incidence occurring after RC, with 6,268 cases (11%). Delirious patients had greater adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.65, P < 0.001), 90-day mortality (OR = 1.47, P = 0.013), discharge with home health services (OR = 2.25, P < 0.001), discharge to skilled nursing facilities (OR = 4.64, P < 0.001), and a 0.9-day increase in median LOS (P < 0.001). Patients with delirium also experienced a $2,697 increase in direct admission costs (P < 0.001), with the greatest costs incurred in RC patients ($30,859 vs. $26,607; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PD after urologic cancer surgeries experienced worse outcomes, prolonged LOS, and increased admission costs. The greatest incidence and costs were seen after RC. Further research is warranted to identify high-risk patients and devise preventative strategies.

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