Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

VA Health Systems Research

Go to the VA ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Medication Adherence in a Nationwide Cohort of Veterans Initiating Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Prevent HIV Infection.

van Epps P, Maier M, Lund B, Howren MB, Beck B, Beste L, Skolnik A, Vaughan-Sarrazin M, Ohl ME. Medication Adherence in a Nationwide Cohort of Veterans Initiating Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Prevent HIV Infection. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2018 Mar 1; 77(3):272-278.

Related HSR&D Project(s)

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection call for long-term, daily use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). Little is known about long-term adherence with TDF/FTC prescribed for PrEP in routine clinical practice. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinics. METHODS: We used VHA data to create a nationwide cohort of Veterans initiating PrEP between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2016. We examined pharmacy refill data to estimate adherence based on the proportion of days covered (PDC) by TDF/FTC in the first year and used logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with high adherence (ie, PDC > 0.8). We also quantified how often Veterans discontinued PrEP in the first year, based on a gap of 120 days or more in medication possession. RESULTS: Among 1086 individuals initiating PrEP, the median PDC for TDF/FTC in the first year was 0.74 (interquartile range 0.40-0.92). In multivariable analysis, high adherence was associated with older age (odds ratio 1.97; 1.41-2.74 for age 50-64 compared with < 35), white compared with black race (odds ratio 2.12; 1.53-2.93), and male sex (odds ratio 3.39; 1.37-8.42). Forty-four percent discontinued PrEP in the first year. CONCLUSIONS: First-year adherence with TDF/FTC was overall high in a nationwide cohort of PrEP users. Differences in adherence by age, race, and sex suggest potential for disparities in PrEP effectiveness in routine clinical practice.

Questions about the HSR website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.