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Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Using the 2005 Caprini Score to Identify the Benefits and Harms of Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients: A Meta-analysis.

Pannucci CJ, Swistun L, MacDonald JK, Henke PK, Brooke BS. Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Using the 2005 Caprini Score to Identify the Benefits and Harms of Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients: A Meta-analysis. Annals of surgery. 2017 Jun 1; 265(6):1094-1103.

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried. Eligible studies contained data on postoperative VTE and/or bleeding events with and without chemoprophylaxis. Primary outcomes included rates of VTE and clinically relevant bleeding after surgical procedures, stratified by Caprini score. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Among 13 included studies, 11 (n = 14,776) contained data for VTE events and 8 (n = 7590) contained data for clinically relevant bleeding with and without chemoprophylaxis. The majority of patients received mechanical prophylaxis. A 14-fold variation in VTE risk (from 0.7% to 10.7%) was identified among surgical patients who did not receive chemoprophylaxis, and patients at increased levels of Caprini risk were significantly more likely to have VTE. Patients with Caprini scores of 7 to 8 [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.37-0.97] and > 8 (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.65) had significant VTE risk reduction after surgery with chemoprophylaxis. Patients with Caprini scores 6 comprised 75% of the overall population, and these patients did not have a significant VTE risk reduction with chemoprophylaxis. No association between postoperative bleeding risk and Caprini score was identified. CONCLUSIONS: The benefit of peri-operative VTE chemoprophylaxis was only found among surgical patients with Caprini scores 7. Precision medicine using individualized VTE risk stratification helps ensure that chemoprophylaxis is used only in appropriate surgical patients and may minimize bleeding complications.





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