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Development, Validation, and Assessment of an Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack-Specific Prediction Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Sico JJ, Yaggi HK, Ofner S, Concato J, Austin C, Ferguson J, Qin L, Tobias L, Taylor S, Vaz Fragoso CA, McLain V, Williams LS, Bravata DM. Development, Validation, and Assessment of an Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack-Specific Prediction Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 2017 Aug 1; 26(8):1745-1754.

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BACKGROUND: Screening instruments for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as used routinely to guide clinicians regarding patient referral for polysomnography (PSG), rely heavily on symptomatology. We sought to develop and validate a cerebrovascular disease-specific OSA prediction model less reliant on symptomatology, and to compare its performance with commonly used screening instruments within a population with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Using data on demographic factors, anthropometric measurements, medical history, stroke severity, sleep questionnaires, and PSG from 2 independently derived, multisite, randomized trials that enrolled patients with stroke or TIA, we developed and validated a model to predict the presence of OSA (i.e., Apnea-Hypopnea Index = 5 events per hour). Model performance was compared with that of the Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender instrument, and the Sleep Apnea Clinical Score. RESULTS: The new SLEEP Inventory (Sex, Left heart failure, ESS, Enlarged neck, weight [in Pounds], Insulin resistance/diabetes, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) performed modestly better than other instruments in identifying patients with OSA, showing reasonable discrimination in the development (c-statistic .732) and validation (c-statistic .731) study populations, and having the highest negative predictive value of all in struments. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of these limitations in OSA screening instruments when making decisions about referral for PSG. The high negative predictive value of the SLEEP INventory may be useful in determining and prioritizing patients with stroke or TIA least in need of overnight PSG.

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