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Tohme F, Mor MK, Pena-Polanco J, Green JA, Fine MJ, Palevsky PM, Weisbord SD. Predictors and outcomes of non-adherence in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. International urology and nephrology. 2017 Aug 1; 49(8):1471-1479.
PURPOSE: Predictors of and outcomes associated with non-adherent behavior among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) have been incompletely elucidated. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the SMILE trial to identify patient factors associated with non-adherence to dialysis-related treatments and the associations of non-adherence with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We defined non-adherence as missed HD and abbreviated HD. We used negative binomial regression to model the associations of demographic and clinical factors with measures of non-adherence, and negative binomial and Cox regression to analyze the associations of non-adherence with hospitalizations and mortality, respectively. RESULTS: We followed 286 patients for up to 24 months. Factors independently associated with missing HD included Tuesday/Thursday/Saturday HD schedule [incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.85, p < 0.01], current smoking (IRR 2.22, p < 0.01), higher pain score (IRR 1.04, p < 0.01), lower healthy literacy (IRR 3.01, p < 0.01), lower baseline quality of life (IRR 0.89, p = 0.01), and younger age (IRR 1.35, p < 0.01). Factors independently associated with abbreviating HD included dialysis vintage (IRR 1.07, p < 0.01), higher pain score (IRR 1.02, p < 0.01), current non-smoking (IRR 1.32, p = 0.03), and younger age (IRR 1.22, p < 0.01). Abbreviating HD was independently associated with an increased number of total (IRR 1.70, p < 0.01) and ESRD-related (IRR 1.66, p < 0.01) hospitalizations, while missing HD was independently associated with mortality (HR 2.36, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We identified several previously described and novel factors independently associated with non-adherence to HD-related treatments, and independent associations of non-adherence with hospitalization and mortality. These findings should inform the development and implementation of interventions to improve adherence and reduce health resource utilization.