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Effectiveness of active and passive warming for the prevention of inadvertent hypothermia in patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Shaw CA, Steelman VM, DeBerg J, Schweizer ML. Effectiveness of active and passive warming for the prevention of inadvertent hypothermia in patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2017 May 1; 38:93-104.
Perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of anesthesia that can result in negative outcomes. The purpose of this review is to answer the question: Does the type of warming intervention influence the frequency or severity of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) in surgical patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia?
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Perioperative care areas.
Adults undergoing surgery with neuraxial anesthesia.
Perioperative active warming (AW) or passive warming (PW).
PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trials; adults undergoing surgery with neuraxial anesthesia; comparison(s) of AW and PW; and temperature measured at end of surgery/upon arrival in the Postanesthesia Care Unit. Exclusion criteria were: no full-text available; not published in English; studies of: combined neuraxial and general anesthesia, warm intravenous or irrigation fluids without using AW, and rewarming after hypothermia. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and titles, and selected records following full-text review. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to evaluate study quality. A random-effects model was used to calculate risk ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences for continuous data.
Of 1587 records, 25 studies (2048 patients) were included in the qualitative synthesis. Eleven studies (1189 patients) comparing AW versus PW were included in the quantitative analysis. Meta-analysis found that intraoperative AW is more effective than PW in reducing the incidence of IPH during neuraxial anesthesia (RR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.83; p < 0.0001; I(2) = 32%). The qualitative synthesis revealed that IPH continues despite current AW technologies.
During neuraxial anesthesia, AW reduces IPH more effectively than PW. Even with AW, IPH persists in some patients. Continued innovation in AW technology and additional comparative effectiveness research studying different AW methods are needed.