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Hu TW, Wagner TH, Bentkover JD, Leblanc K, Zhou SZ, Hunt T. Costs of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in the United States: a comparative study. Urology. 2004 Mar 1; 63(3):461-5.
OBJECTIVES: To update the cost of urinary incontinence (UI) for year 2000 and compare it with the cost of overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: Using the cost-of-illness framework, disease epidemiologic data were combined with treatment rates, consequence probabilities, and average cost estimates. All costs reflect the costs during 2000. RESULTS: The total cost of UI and OAB was 19.5 billion dollars and 12.6 billion dollars, respectively (year 2000 dollars). With UI, 14.2 billion dollars was borne by community residents and 5.3 billion dollars by institutional residents. With OAB, 9.1 and 3.5 billion dollars, respectively, was incurred by community and institutional residents. CONCLUSIONS: OAB affected 34 million individuals compared with 17 million with UI. Despite the differences in epidemiology, the total and per-person costs of UI were higher than the OAB costs because OAB individuals without incontinent episodes incurred fewer costs, on average.